Sunday, May 24, 2020

Minors and Abortion Parental Consent Must be Mandatory

How can a child make the decision for the life of another child by themselves? In this paper I will outline the mental, physical, and safety issues of minors (age 18 and under) having an abortion and why it is so important that they need to get parental consent before making this life long decision. Talking about abortion brings out an emotional response in many women. This is because having an abortion takes a massive emotional toll on some women. As Nanyjo Mann said, three weeks after having an abortion, â€Å"I became preoccupied with the thoughts of death. I fantasized about how I would die. My baby struggled for two hours† (Reardon, 1987, p. xviii). In the forward of the book â€Å"Aborted Women, Silent No More† Nanyjo, a women telling†¦show more content†¦I think most would feel terrible. Having a law that enforces girls, under 18 years, to inform their parents when she wants to get an abortion would make the process much easier and safer on the c hild and the family. It would also make parents feel like better protectors to know what’s going on in their daughters life and help her make the correct decision. There are also the suicide rates of women who have had abortions to think about. As shown in a table from the book Woman’s Health After Abortion, The Medical and Psychological Evidence (Ring-Cassidy and Gentles p. 197 Table 14-2) the U.S annual suicide rate per 100,000 women aged 15-44 who have not had an abortion is 5.2 and the number that have had an abortion is 7.8. The number who have had abortions is significantly higher, relating back to the emotional struggles of abortion . If your daughter was in so much pain and depression that she decided to commit suicide over the issue, how would you feel not even knowing about it? By talking to your child about it and being there for them along the way there would be less of a risk of unfortunate situations such as suicide, depression and post abortion com plications. On the other hand, privacy and confidentiality are very important things that doctors and other health care workers take seriously. In many states you do not need parental consent for getting an abortion when you are under 18 (2009, Rutgers University). Where this is the case,Show MoreRelated Abortion Should Be Illegal Essay examples1195 Words   |  5 PagesAround the world many women are receiving abortions legally and illegally. I believe receiving abortions should be against the law, with the exception of rape and incest. Taking the life of an unborn human being is not only cruel but wrong. The decision of taking another human beings life should not lie in our hands. In every society whether it was legal or legal, abortions were used to control fertility. In the United States it was practiced legally until about 1880, by then most states had bannedRead MoreAbortion Should Not Be The First Choice1513 Words   |  7 PagesWhen it comes to the word abortion there is no limit on how much controversy the word alone sparks. There are many reasons an abortion is performed or justified. There are consequences both physically and mentally. Everyone seeking an abortion, for whatever reason, should be required to attend a mandatory counseling session, and, experience a waiting period. Abortion should not be the first choice. Consider the options and all risks involved carefully before agreeing to end a life. I think if youRead MoreTeenage Abortion Essay examples1177 Words   |  5 PagesTeenage Women, Abortion and Law Abortion has always been a very controversial issue. This can be due to the fact that people have different beliefs that are emphasized by their own religion and set of moral values. Many people believe that abortion is wrong, but they believe that is it only wrong under certain circumstances. This could be true, but is it more right to kill for a specific reason than to just do it because you made an irresponsible decision? Because of the wide spectrum of religionRead More Teenage Abortion Essays1162 Words   |  5 Pages Teenage Women, Abortion and Law Abortion has always been a very controversial issue. This can be due to the fact that people have different beliefs that are emphasized by their own religion and set of moral values. Many people believe that abortion is wrong, but they believe that is it only wrong under certain circumstances. This could be true, but is it more right to kill for a specific reason than to just do it because you made an irresponsible decision? Because of the wide spectrum of religionRead MoreAbortion in the United States Essay1748 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is abortion? According to the Oxford English Dictionary, â€Å"Abortion: the premature expulsion of a [foetus] from the womb; an operation to cause this.† Abortion has been a controversial topic for many years. Some people favor adoption and some are against it. â€Å"In 2008 an estimated 1.21 million abortions were performed in the Unites States.†(Jones, and Kooistra). Many opinions collaborate in abortions rights or abortion legislat ion. â€Å"In 2008, 84,610 women obtained abortions in Texas, producingRead More History Of Abortion In The Court Essay1592 Words   |  7 Pages Abortion. The word alone provokes strong emotion in both women and men alike. Roe v. Wade was decided twenty five years ago, but still the fight is not over. Instead, there are mass rallies, bombings of abortion clinics, murders of doctors and workers at such clinics, intimidation, arrest, political lobbying, and numerous Supreme Court cases. What is it that divides families, and keeps old friends from speaking to one another on the topic? Why are opinions so polarized and why are minds so closedRead MoreAbortion : A Long And Dangerous History1532 Words   |  7 PagesAbortion has had a long and dangerous history that is seldomly talked about even today. Recently recognized as a right to women and their bodies, abortion was not an option for most women in the nineteenth century. Prior to Roe v. Wade, there was a system designed to give men control over women’s biological nature to have children. This created legislation that allowed men to dictate when the birthing process would occur, giving men power over their children and wives. Legislation aimed at women’sRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal And If It Is Right Or Wrong?2022 Words   |  9 PagesThe U.S abortion rate is among the highest of developed countries with it being one point one million each year. The topic of abortion has been argued for centuries over whether or not it should be legal and if it is right or wrong. There are many arguments presented by anti-abortionists as to why it is wrong, but someone pro-abortion will always come back with an argument for why it is okay. The fact of the matter is that no one will ever be right, this topic is simply a matter of opinion. ThereRead MoreThe Impact of Roe V. Wade1738 Words   |  7 Pagespregnant; wished to terminate the pregnancy. But in the state of Texas abortions were illegal expect in cases were the health and/or safety of the mother were at risk. Two woman lawyers; Linda Coffee and Sarah Weddington, who at the time were looking to overturn the restrictions on abortion laws in Texas recruited Ms. McCorvey, and filed suit under the name of Jane Roe, to represent all pregnant women. They â€Å"attacked the abortion restrictions of Texas in the federal courts on the grounds that theyRead MoreAbortion, Good or Bad for Society?3757 Words   |  16 PagesAbortion. Abortion is when a pregnancy is terminated. This could happen naturally or on purpose. Natural abortions are caused for a variety of reasons, some in which the fetus does not develop normally, or if the mother has an injury or disorder that would prevent the birth of the child. Most people refer to the naturally occurring abortions as miscarriages. Other abortions are purposely committed to prevent the birth of a child. These abortions are done because the pregnancy is not wanted, or the

Monday, May 18, 2020

The rising of minimum wages reduce poverty - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 283 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/10/10 Did you like this example? In the work done by all the people in the world, generally if their wages increase it means there will be reduced need in their live since their salaries cater for their needs in their live. This paper is going to highlight the importance on the wage increase on the society. This is the society issue that is in the argument papers argument As proposed by the democrats in the two thousand and fourteen that the increment of the wages to a minimum of ten point one dollars an hour would reduce the people number who are living in the poverty by a large number of about four point six million. This would also improve the income for those at ten percentile that is by one thousand and seven hundred dollars. That is then a significant improvement of the life in the quality that does not have the need for the government to increase the tax in any way. The policy makes up the argument that there is nowhere the government has to use the administrative policy. It is self-enforcing without the administrative cost. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The rising of minimum wages reduce poverty" essay for you Create order The study on the increasing wage results that there would be at least a standardized change in the lives of low class people. There has been an argument in previous years by different people that the same shows the increase in the standards of the lives for those that living in the low class. The relationship between the previous studies and the current one both reflect an improvement on the life. In conclusion, the mean in the study reflect the minimum wage increase would improve not even the lives’ standards of only the poor but there would be an

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Cancelación de visa por quedarse en EE.UU. más tiempo

Una de las formas mà ¡s frecuentes de  revocacià ³n o  cancelacià ³n una visa americana ocurre cuando un extranjero ingresa a Estados Unidos con una visa no inmigrante y prolonga su estancia mà ¡s allà ¡ del tiempo de lo permitido. Asimismo, los turistas de paà ­ses incluidos en el Programa de Exencià ³n de Visados,–entre ellos Chile y Espaà ±a– y bajo el cual sus ciudadanos pueden ingresar a EE.UU. sin visa por un tiempo mà ¡ximo de 90 dà ­as, pierden este privilegio si exceden su estadà ­a mà ¡s allà ¡ de esos tres meses. Revocacià ³n visa por estancia ilegal en EE.UU. La presencia en EE.UU. mà ¡s allà ¡ del tiempo permitido provoca cancelacià ³n/revocacià ³n visa. Ademà ¡s, los turistas que ingresaron sin visa pierden ese derecho.Otras consecuencias:posible expulsià ³n o deportacià ³nimposibilidad de solicitar cambio visa o extensià ³nse limitan los caminos para regular la situacià ³ncastigo de 3 o 10 aà ±os, una vez que se està ¡ fuera de EE.UU.dificultad para volver a obtener una visa americanaSegà ºn datos del Departamento de Seguridad Interna, segà ºn datos de 2017, à ºltimo aà ±o fiscal disponible, se quedaron en EE.UU. mà ¡s allà ¡ del tiempo autorizado:el 0,51% de turistas que ingresaron sin visa por el Programa de Exencià ³n de Visadosel 1,91% de extranjeros que ingresaron sin visael 4,15% de extranjeros que ingresaron con visa de estudiante F-1 Consecuencias por  permanecer ilegalmente en Estados Unidos   El tiempo que un extranjero no inmigrante puede permanecer legalmente en Estados Unidos y su periodo de gracia, cuando lo hay, està ¡ determinado por el tipo de visa que utiliza para ingresar. En el caso de los turistas con una B1/B2 el tiempo mà ¡ximo de estancia està ¡ determinado en el I-94, registro de ingreso y de salida. En estos casos no hay periodo de gracia pero podrà ­a calificarse para solicitar una extensià ³n o, incluso, un cambio de visa. Pero si no se sale a tiempo la visa es cancelada. Por otra parte, en el caso de un turista internacional que ingresa a EE.UU. sin visa por ser de un paà ­s en el Programa de Exencià ³n de Visas el plazo mà ¡ximo de estancia es de 90 dà ­as. No es posible ni pedir extensià ³n, ni cambio a otra visa. Tampoco aplica ningà ºn periodo de gracia. Una vez transcurrido el plazo que corresponde a cada persona segà ºn su tipo de visa, el extranjero se convierte en indocumentado si permanece en Estados Unidos. Es lo que se conoce en inglà ©s como visa overstay. Consecuentemente, podrà ­a ser expulsado o deportado, dependiendo de las circunstancias de cada caso. Sin embargo, existen excepciones como, por ejemplo, iniciar un trà ¡mite para ajuste de estatus o haber solicitado a tiempo una extensià ³n o un cambio de visa.   Ademà ¡s de la consecuencia de la posible deportacià ³n, hay otras que deben ser tenidos en cuenta. En primer lugar, una vez que la visa se convierte en no và ¡lida por haber abusado del tiempo permitido para permanecer en Estados Unidos ya no es posible pedir con à ©xito una extensià ³n de la misma o el cambio a otra   Ademà ¡s, es muy importante que si se està ¡ en situacià ³n de indocumentado se cierran en la prà ¡ctica muchas puertas a la posibilidad de obtener la tarjeta de residencia. La razà ³n es que no siempre es posible realizar lo que se conoce como un ajuste de estatus.   Por ejemplo, Antonio Alonso ingresà ³ a Estados Unidos con una visa de turista y se quedà ³ 15 meses mà ¡s allà ¡ de la fecha autorizada. Despuà ©s se casa con Pili Pà ©rez, una residente permanente que lo pide como esposo. Al principio las cosas van bien porque el Servicio de Inmigracià ³n y Ciudadanà ­a aprueba la peticià ³n de familiar realizada con el formulario I-130. Pero despuà ©s la dura realidad se impone. Antonio no puede ajustar su estatus y tiene que salir de los Estados Unidos para completar el proceso en un consulado. Y allà ­ se encuentra con la negacià ³n de la peticià ³n de la green card y que tiene un castigo de 10 aà ±os por haber estado ilegalmente en los Estados Unidos. La situacià ³n serà ­a diferente si Pili Pà ©rez fuera una ciudadana estadounidense en vez de una residente permanente. Cabe destacar que la situacià ³n de indocumentado limita las posibilidades para regularizarse al impedir en muchos casos el ajuste de estatus. Por eso, si se tiene ese estatus es muy importante informarse muy bien sobre si para el caso particular que le afecta a uno es posible arreglar los papeles sin salir de Estados Unidos o no.  ¿Quà © sucede cuando se sale de EE.UU. pero se ha estado ilegalmente en el paà ­s? En este caso hay que distinguir dos situaciones: En primer lugar, cuando se ha estado en situacià ³n irregular en Estados Unidos por un total de menos de 180 dà ­as. En este caso es posible pedir inmediatamente una nueva visa. Pero hay que tener en cuenta que el consulado puede negarla muy fà ¡cilmente por considerar al solicitante como inelegible. Y eso es porque una de las razones por las que se puede decir no cuando se pide una visa es que el oficial consular crea que el solicitante tiene intencià ³n de quedarse en Estados Unidos.  Si ya lo hizo una vez,  ¿por quà © no va a volver a hacerlo? Por eso que no es tan fà ¡cil volver a sacar la visa. Pero desde luego que no es imposible ya que la estancia alargada fuera de plazo pudo deberse a una situacià ³n razonable que se puede probar, como por ejemplo, haber estado hospitalizado.   Tambià ©n puede ser que hayan transcurrido ya muchos aà ±os y la situacià ³n actual del solicitante, muy asentado en su lugar de residencia, permita suponer que de esta vez no se va a quedar en los Estados Unidos ni un sà ³lo dà ­a mà ¡s del autorizado. Subrayar que de acuerdo a la ley, cualquier oficial consular puede denegar una visa basà ¡ndose en sospecha. No necesita probar nada. Es el solicitante el que debe probar mà ¡s allà ¡ de toda duda que va a cumplir las leyes migratorias. En segundo lugar, si se ha estado sin autorizacià ³n en Estados Unidos por mà ¡s de 180 dà ­as aplica el castigo de los 3 o de los 10 aà ±os, si bien hay algunas excepciones. Este castigo implica que mientas se està ¡ cumpliendo una persona se convierte en inadmisible para ingresar a Estados Unidos. En otras palabras, mientras no cumpla su tiempo de castigo no puede pedir una visa y, si lo hace, serà ¡ negada. Sin embargo, en algunos casos extraordinarios es posible solicitar un permiso, que tambià ©n se conoce como waiver or perdà ³n y asà ­ se podrà ­a solicitar la visa antes de que transcurra todo el tiempo de castigo. Las condiciones para solicitarlo son diferentes segà ºn se quiera obtener una visa no inmigrante, por ejemplo la de turista, o una de inmigrante para obtener la green card, por ejemplo, en el caso de peticià ³n por parte de un familiar. En todos estos casos lo recomendable es consultar con un abogado migratorio reputado. No es fà ¡cil obtener un waiver y, ni siquiera es posible sacarlo segà ºn como sea el caso.   Finalmente, si se ha cumplido el castigo de los 3 o de los 10 aà ±os, es posible ya solicitar una visa no inmigrante o de inmigrante porque ha desaparecido la causa que convertà ­a al extranjero en inadmisible.   Sin embargo, tener en cuenta que para el caso de visa no inmigrante todavà ­a es posible que el cà ³nsul la niegue, precisamente alegando que se es inelegible. Es muy importe en estos casos poder demostrar que no se tiene ninguna intencià ³n de quedarse en los Estados Unidos mà ¡s tiempo del permitido y de que se tienen lazos econà ³micos y familiares fuertes en el lugar de residencia.  ¿Cà ³mo se notifica la cancelacià ³n de la visa? La cancelacià ³n de la visa se produce automà ¡ticamente. Las autoridades estadounidenses no tienen obligacià ³n de comunicarlo. Lo mismo sucede con los nacionales de los paà ­ses del Programa de Exencià ³n de Visas. Pierden automà ¡ticamente el derecho a ingresar a EE.UU. sin un visado, no siendo necesaria la comunicacià ³n a la persona interesada. Consejos para evitar tener problemas con las visas americanas La visa que mayores problemas causa es la de turista. Para evitarlos es conveniente tomar este test sobre cà ³mo obtenerla y conservarla. Ademà ¡s, no conviene abusar de las frecuencias de los ingresos. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal para ningà ºn caso concreto.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Professional Practice And How Does It Differ Between...

Introduction What is professional practice and how does it differ between patient facing versus laboratory based clinical scientists? Is there in fact a difference? Professional practice is one of the 5 domains of good scientific practice which define the standards and values all healthcare professionals should strive towards. Furthermore professional practice can be further divided into professional practice, probity, working with colleagues and training and developing others. As can be imagined all clinical scientists, whether in a patient facing role or not, will need to embody each of these to be an effective healthcare scientist. Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (HI) is the branch of Clinical Science (Blood sciences) involved in HLA typing and screening for solid organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplants (Histocompatibility) and the genetics of major histocompatibility complex associated disease (immunogenetics). Clinical scientists within this field have limited patient interactions yet must still embody professional practice. Each of the following statements will examine aspects of professional practice and how they impact on clinical scientists within HI. ‘Clinical scientists lead the way in innovation’ The central tenet of professional practice and the core of the NHS constitution is to make the patient your first consideration. While this includes concepts such as exercising duty of care and keeping scientific skills relevant and up-to-date, it alsoShow MoreRelatedOcd - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment131367 Words   |  526 Pagesof this book nonassignable permission to reproduce the appendices of this book. This license is limited to you, the individual purchaser, for use with your own clients and patients. It does not extend to additional clinicians or practice settings, nor does purchase by an institution constitute a site license. This license does not grant the right to reproduce these materials for resale, redistribution, or any other purposes (including but not limited to books, pamphlets, articles, video- or audiotapesRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesresearched and readers are encouraged to view chapters as a starting point for getting to grips wit h the field of organization theory. Dr Martin Brigham, Lancaster University, UK McAuley et al. provide a highly readable account of ideas, perspectives and practices of organization. By thoroughly explaining, analyzing and exploring organization theory the book increases the understanding of a field that in recent years has become ever more fragmented. Organization theory is central to managing, organizing andRead MoreThe Social Impact of Drug Abuse24406 Words   |  98 Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Alternative development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 A. What is alternative development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 B. How can alternative development be characterized? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 C. Necessary components and implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Part four VI. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Read MoreGsk An nual Report 2010135604 Words   |  543 Pages ‘Presentation of the ï ¬ nancial statements’. GSK Annual Report 2010 01 We exist to improve the quality of human life by enabling people to do more, feel better and live longer. We work by respecting people, maintaining our focus on the patient and consumer whilst operating with both integrity and transparency. 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IT User NVQ †Communication Free Essays

Most businesses of a certain site will have a company website to ell and advertise their products and services. These companies will often have a staff intranet run on company servers for employees only. This gives access to company Information, handbooks, procedures, forms and announcements. We will write a custom essay sample on IT User NVQ – Communication or any similar topic only for you Order Now Paper based Information Is found in newspapers, books, maps and other printed literature and materials. Marketing information takes form in posters, billboards, leaflets, business cards and advertisements. Copyright law applies to all Information that Is available to view and be stored. It applies to music downloads, personal details, medical history, financial records, and retests a company or creator from plagiarism and theft of owned ideas and work. When referencing someone else’s work it is important to acknowledging sources such as websites or books used. This also applies to Images taken from Imaging sites unless bought through stock photography. Electronically, access to Information can be restricted and permissions granted to only those chosen by the authority, an example of this is an HRS folder in a company network. Only authorized members of the HRS department would have access to the folder and Its contents as It would contain personal and confidential Information. A person or a business proven to be breaking the Data Protection Act and Copyright laws will be heavily fined and can face a prison sentence. Bal . 2 Describe a minimum of four different features of information. Manuals and training guides provide information on how to use products and appliances Including manufacturing guidelines and warranty information. Training guides are tutorials for the use of hardware and software, these start from a beginner level to more advanced features and functions. These can be supplied both paper and electronic format. Books containing factual Information can be bought from specialist bookstores, queasiness or borrowed from libraries. These can be history and language books or 1 OFF ordinate survey maps contain information about local, national or international areas and countries, whilst reports are created to show information relating to finance, success, stock and inquiry. These can be presented in a written form or a presentation on television or over the radio. Creative work is a vital part of advertising information to attract interest and sales. Companies produce posters, brochures and other marketing materials to appeal to their current customer base and attract curiosity from new ones. Information treated on marketing materials usually relates to discounts, new products, extended sales, company profiles and imagery of goods, ideas and concepts. Live information such as bus / trains times, road traffic news, national news bulletins and weather forecasts are available to provide continuous up to date coverage online, on television and through electronic displays. This is arguably the most widely used and necessary information feature to allow the smooth operation of transport, businesses and increasing public knowledge on local and worldly matters. 82. 1, 82. 2, 82. 3 82. 4 Use a minimum of three different examples of access, aviation and search, one from each category. Use a minimum of three different search techniques and evaluate if the outcomes are fit for purpose. Access – entering a password to access a file or folder, creating a database query, entering an exact web address into an internet browser. Navigate – the use of website menu bars, browsing a company intranet, using bookmarks and favorites to store and recall websites and pages of interest. Search – the use of a search engine, using the find tool in Microsoft programs, using a wild card in database systems when a range of results is required or the exact search name unknown. Evaluation: – It is important that the information searched for and the results are relevant and up to date. Some websites are not regularly updated so will contain outdated information, a way to check for this is to check the end date on the copyright notice at the base of most home pages. Other informative sites such as Wisped are contribution based so users all over the world can input information on a topic. This information may not be accurate or be referenced incorrectly. Using a wildcat in databases will result in increased data found; sort through this for the information required will take time. However it is a useful tool if the name or description of what is being searched is unknown. Level of detail required is fundamental to how information is searched and accessed. For more detailed such as books and magazines on a specific topic. Navigation must be a sufficient option on any commercial website so the user can easily find what they are looking for. Poor design and limited functionality will dissuade users from using a site. 83. 1 83. 2 – See Using Email evidence 83. 3 A minimum of three different examples of managing storage. Managing storage in electronic communication is important to allow for organization ND easy retrieval of information. Creating message folders and suborders with rules attached for incoming mail will help to organize busy infixes into different categories such as department, sender name and importance. Suborders can be included for completed tasks or read and replied to emails. Any important attachments should be downloaded to a specific folder and the email archived or deleted if possible to create more space. Archiving important emails allows them to be saved on an individual computer or on a network. These emails can be retrieved when needed and opened in a compatible email client. Deleting unwanted emails ND regularly clear Junk and deleted items folders will help to increase space and also the running speed of an email program. These folders can be set to auto empty on close of the program or after a certain number of days. 83. 4 83. 5 Describe how to, and respond appropriately to, at least two common IT- based communication problems. When communicating through IT some problems can occur which can be rectified by following guidelines set by the network administrator of the manufacturer. Examples of problems that can occur are attempting to send or receive an email with an attachment that is too large or unreadable. Many businesses set size restrictions on incoming and outgoing mail for security and space management. Decreasing the size of the file or finding an alternative method of delivery such as a USB stick will allow the recipient to receive without further issues. Sometimes an attachment cannot be opened as it has been created in a program not installed on the recipient’s computer. Appropriate programs, or the sender and resave in a different format. Emails from unknown senders can be problematic. These can be SPAM or fishing emails attempting to trick the recipient into entering personal or banking details ender the guise of a legitimate company. They can also be innocent messages that can contain a virus attachment which is intended to damage the recipient’s computer. Ways to prevent this are to install antivirus software and update it regularly. Increase firewall settings and if possible install spare prevention software also. Be wary of emails from unknown senders, if an email address does not appear legitimate most email clients have a block feature to stop further emails being received from the address. Any emails that appear to be genuine such as from a bank are often not so contacting the company by phone will clarify what is required. 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Lexical Change In The Field Of Information Technology In The Spanish L Essay Example For Students

Lexical Change In The Field Of Information Technology In The Spanish L Essay anguageThe rise of information technology is the single most important technological development of the 20th century. It has revolutionised almost every facet of modern life. Areas as diverse as stock-holding, banking, publishing and personal communication have been transformed thanks to the computer. As a result, computer jargon is one the fastest and widest-reaching areas of lexical change in Spanish, in that a whole new area of terminology has evolved. How has the Spanish language coped with this influx of new terms, for which a need had never previously existed? My main aim in this essay is to give a general survey of common (and some less common) computing terms in Spanish, firstly concerning hardware and software, and secondly concerning the Internet. I intend to analyse throughout the lexical processes involved. There are two main processes by which new words are being adopted into Spanish. Firstly, it has utilised the process of ?borrowing. This means that it has adopted words from other languages, in this case, primarily from English. Secondly, it has used ?neologism. This is where it has taken existing words and roots from its language stock, and altered them to endow them with new meanings. The more common of the two, in the sphere of information technology, is borrowing. Since the vast majority of technological development in this field takes place in the USA, the majority of technical vocabulary devised is in originally in English. Therefore, it takes a deliberate effort to hispanicise such terms. Although such efforts do take place, English terms do tend to ?catch on earlier than their neologised Spanish counterparts, since technology is currently developing at such an incredible rate that Spanish often struggles to keep up. One of the areas in which Spanish language terms hold sway is in the names of the physical hardware of a computer system. For example, in Peninsular Spanish the term for a computer is ordenador, despite the existence of a word similar to its English counterpart. Other hardware terms derived from Spanish roots include teclado for keyboard (although this is not a new term, as it was used previously to refer to typewriter keybofer to typewriter keyboards) and impresora for printer. Both of these terms are bona-fide neologisms. Teclado is derived from the noun tecla, meaning key. Impresora is probably derived from the verb impresionar, meaning ?to leave an impression. The suffix -or(a), which suggests functionality, has been added to the root of the verb impres-. When talking about hardware, we also see examples of ?loan translation or ?calquing, whereby foreign terms are translated verbatim, giving an authentic Spanish term. For example, the English term ?mouse, itself a metaphorical neologism, is given in Spanish as rat?n, and hard disk is given as disco duro. (Floppy disks, on the other hand, are generally referred to as un floppy, despite the existence of terms such as disquete or disco flexible). A headline taken from the website of the highly respected Madrid-based daily newspaper, El Pa?s: (?Parlamentos, escuelas y hospitales instalan un software que interfiere la se?al de los tel?fonos m?viles para evitar la poluci?n sonora. ) highlights the dependence of borrowed words in the field of information technology. The Oxford Spanish-English dictionary informs us that the only equivalent English ?software is the borrowed software. However, Fern?ndez Calvos on-line terminology guide offers two alternatives: componente l?gico and programa. It is difficult to imagine however, either of these two terms becoming commonplace, the former being too long-winded, and the latter being too vague. Nevertheless, when software does appear in printed media, it is more often than not italicised. Clearly then, the word has not been fully assimilated into the Spanish vocabulary. (Interestingly, specific varieties of software tend to have neologised terms. ?Desktop publishing is given as autoedici? n . ?Spreadsheet is translated as hoja de c?lculos, and ?word processing as procesamiento de textos). Racism And Discrimination EssayThere are, thankfully, several instances of calquing in the field of technical Internet terms, which to some extent displaces the dominance of English. Netglos, for example offers us anfitri?n as an equivalent to the English ?host. Also the English term ?bandwidth (which concerns the speed of file transfer) is given as ancho de banda. We have seen that in trying to adapt itself to the linguistic necessities of the information age, the Spanish language mainly uses two forms of creating terminology. The first of these, and the most widespread is borrowing, especially from English. Spanish has some difficulty dealing with the more vague concepts of information technology, such as software and hardware. Likewise, more recent hardware terms such as m?dem and esc?ner have been borrowed from English and assimilated into Spanish. It is in the Internet that we see the most usage of terms being borrowed. English terms are also seen as having an air of modernity , which is why terms such as web appear in the press. Thankfully, for the Spanish language, lexical change is not limited to borrowing English words. Neologisms are being created all the time and in many cases are becoming commonplace. BibliographyBatchelor, R.E.; Using Spanish Synonyms; Cambridge UP, 1994Ciberpa?s; http://www.ciberpais.elpais.esEl Pa?s Digital; http://www.elpais.esEl Mundo, Diario del Navegante; Calvo, Rafael; Glosario b?sico ingl?s-espa?ol para usarios del Internet;; Spanish-English Dictionary; OUP, 1998Stewart, M; The Spanish Language Today, Routledge, London, 1999Foreign Languages

Monday, May 4, 2020

Policy Implementation and Market Structures

Queston: Discuss about the Policy Implementation and Market Structures. Answer: Introduction The government has a primary role of ensuring that the economy is operating well and that it is free from externalities. Externalities (especially the negative ones) are actions that are done by a party but ends up impacting another party whether knowingly or unknowingly. Consumption of alcohol always gets out of control particularly when the prices for alcohol are too low. The consumption for alcoholic products obeys the law of demand since its level changes with price variations. When prices are low, consumers buy more but buy less when prices are high. The price elasticity of demand (PED) helps in showing the expected changes in demand when price is varied by a unit (Sivagnanam Srinivasan, 2010). Many economists have argued that the demand for alcoholic products falls under an inelastic demand such that a unit price change may have less influence on the quantity demanded. This paper will try to prove whether this assertion is true. If it will be confirmed to be true, the paper wi ll guide the government policy makers in determining the appropriate action to take so as to lower the consumption of alcohol. Alcohol is both harmful to oneself and to the whole community. Some people are so addicted in its consumption such that they cant go a day without it. This people end up neglecting their primary responsibilities such as caring for the family and their productivity at their job places goes down. This is detrimental to the economic growth and thus the rationale for its price control by the government. The paper will also help in understanding the market structures. It will provide the characteristics of different market structure that mainly affect the markets operations. It will also explain why it is difficult for a company to survive in such a market whereas another company may not be able to compete in a similar market. Investors will therefore be able to determine the most profitable market structures to venture into. The figure on demand model for Euromonitor Internationals Industry shows the various elasticities of demand for alcohol products. The model is specifically one sided model (negative side) meaning that alcoholic goods are normal goods and their demand are inversely related to the selling price such that a price rise results in a demand decline and a price fall results in a demand rise. In the model, it can be observed that different alcoholic products differ in their elasticity of demand. I.e. whereas its too high for high strength premixes, it is too low for the blended scotch whiskey. Suppliers of alcoholic products are mostly interested in such products such as the blended scotch whiskey with a low PED. This is because it enables them to influence the price without much influence on the quantity demanded. This paper will not consider the individual PED since there is an assumption that consumers would shift from one product to another when the price for one increases and the other remain unchanged. We shall therefore use the overall PED for alcoholic product determined in the model to be 0.45 (inelastic demand). When the government employs the policy of tax raise on alcoholic products, it creates an additional burden to the tax payers. However, since this tax is an indirect tax, its the consumers of alcoholic products alone who feels the squeeze (Sadowsky, 2010). The squeeze could be felt by the suppliers if they are unable to raise the consumer prices. PED is used in defining the party that suffers the extra tax burden. The equilibrium point before the tax increment is at point c (Po, Qo). The slope of the demand curve is steeply inclined as a sign that it is inelastic. The tax causes the prices to be raised from Po to P1 and consequently the quantity demanded declines from Qo to Q1. Before tax, the consumer surplus was area fcx and the producer surplus was area fcy. The change in demand is too small compared to the price increment. Therefore consumers suffer a greater tax burden. The tax burden is area abde where abgf is the burden on consumers and fgde is the burden on producers. Due to this tax imposition, the new producers surplus is edy which is lower than the initial fcy, and the new consumers surplus is abx which is lower than the initial fcx. A deadweight loss results and is equivalent to area bcd. The greatest tax burden is therefore concluded to be carried by the consumers when the demand is inelastic. The equilibrium point before the tax increment is at point c (Po, Qo). The slope of the demand curve is not steeply inclined as a sign that it is elastic. The tax causes the prices to be raised from Po to P1 and consequently the quantity demanded declines from Qo to Q1. Before tax, the consumer surplus was area fcx and the producer surplus was area fcy. The change in demand is too big compared to the small price increment. Therefore producers suffer a greater tax burden. The tax burden is area abde where abgf is the burden on consumers and fgde is the burden on producers. Due to this tax imposition, the new producers surplus is edy which is lower than the initial fcy, and the new consumers surplus is abx which is lower than the initial fcx. A deadweight loss results and is equivalent to area bcd. The greatest tax burden is therefore concluded to be carried by the producers when the demand is elastic. The equilibrium point initially is at point e (PoQo). The main goal of a minimum pricing strategy is to discourage demand, thus, this price P1 is set above the normal selling price. According to Woodhouse (2017) no seller is allowed to sell below the fixed price. At price P1 above the normal selling price, demand is discourage and falls to Q1. Consumers willingness to pay is minimized by the high price. However, the willingness of suppliers to supply more increases at the high price; their new supply level is Q2. Therefore an excess supply creates an oversupply in the market. Minimum price on alcohol therefore prevents the market from clearing. Both are mean to influence the consumption level so as to achieve health improvements and reduction of negative externalities. From the analysis on part (i) and part (ii) above, it can be concluded that imposing an exercise tax is more beneficial and effective than fixing a minimum price on alcoholic products. This is because, with an excise tax, the government not only discourages consumption of alcohol, it also raise its revenues. In the case for minimum price, the government only influences the consumption level but no revenues is raised. An excise tax could be beneficial to either the supplier or the consumers depending on their elasticity to demand. In case for the minimum pricing, there is only one party that benefits (the suppliers). There is no way through which a consumer can benefit from minimum price set on alcohol. Comparing the effectiveness of the two policy strategies, an excise tax is more effective as its a must it be adhered to, but for a minimum price the supplier may practice illegal selling practices. The government should therefore at all times consider imposing an excise tax and completely avoid minimum pricing. Table price in the long run will be above $ 200 because in the long run, the AC curve does not intersect with the AR (demand curve). They only meet at a tangency point. In the long run, only normal profits are made in a monopolistic competition. The AC curve generally is U-shaped and the demand curve is sloping negatively. Therefore, unless the demand curve was horizontal, it can never be tangent with the minimum point of the LRAC curve. Since demand curve will never be horizontal, the tangent point for the demand curve and the LRAC will never be at the minimum point. The diagram above shows the tangency point price and the minimum LRAC (where LRMC and LRAC intersect). There are many players in the market, but only a few large players dominating the market. In Australia, four firms from most industries control over 60 % of the market share (Kollmorgen, 2016). There are cost and competition barriers to entry. I.e. startup costs, and competition since the large players may fix their prices too lower to force the non-well established firms to exit the market. Price makers The large players may collude to form cartels to gain market power The products are either identical or differentiated. The decision of one player affect that of others. The industries in Australia that fall under oligopoly include; According to Andrew (2014), the supermarket industry is an oligopoly since there are few major players dominating the market (Coles and Woolworths). According to Adiktd (2014), the banking industry in Australia is an oligopoly since it is dominated by 4 big banks (National Australia Bank (NAB), Westpac (WBC), Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ) and Commonwealth Bank (CBA). He also quoted that of all the other markets, this industry has the highest entry barriers. According to Smith (2015), the telecommunication industry in Australia is an oligopoly since Telstra, Vodafone Australia and Telecommunications-owned Optus dominate the market. Characteristic of monopolistic competition Numerous participants. Dwivedi (2006) noted that estimating the number of these sellers is difficult, but depending on the size of the market they may be 10 20. Perfect information Heterogeneous products. According to Baumol Blinder (2009), the products are similar but slightly differentiated. Freedom of entry and exit Examples of monopolistic completion industries in Australia The hairdressing industry according to Anders (2011) is a monopolistic competition industry since the sellers products and skills are slightly differentiated. The smartphone industry according to Joshi (2016) is a monopolistic competition industry since they offer a wide range of smartphones that are differentiated. The bakery industry according to Narula (2017) is a monopolistic competition industry since the bakers are many and different prices can be charged depending on competition in a given area. Duopoly competition occurs when there are only two firms dominating the market and are able to satisfy demand. The two firms must be able to produce at the lowest cost. There must be huge economies of scale so that other firms are unable to join the market. The price charged is equal to the minimum point of ATC and thus greater economies of scale. Other markets cannot survive in this market. So entrance is hindered by the economies of scale. References Adiktd. (2014). Oligopoly in the Australian Banking Sector. Retrieved 14 April 2017, from https:.// Anders, J. (2011). What are the best examples of monopolistic competition in the real world? Retrieved 14 April 2017, from Andrew. (2014). Australian Oligopolies. Retrieved 14 April 2017, from (2012). Soal dan Jawaban Asistensi PE1 Price discrimination, monopolistik, oligopoli. Retrieved 15 April 2017, from Baumol, W., Blinder, A. (2009). Economics (11th Ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning. Dwivedi, D. (2006). Microeconomics. New Delhi: Pearson Education. Joshi, M. (2016). What are the best examples of monopolistic competition in the real world? Retrieved 15 April 2017, from Kollmorgen, A. (2016). Market monopolies in Australia. Retrieved 15 April 2017, from Narula, L. (2017). What are the best examples of monopolistic competition in the real world? Retrieved 15 April 2017, from Purpura, K. (2011). Monopolistic Competition: How to Graph it. YouTube. Retrieved 14 April 2017, from Sadowsky, J. (2010). The Economics of Sin Taxes. Retrieved 14 April 2017, from Sivagnanam, J. Srinivasan, R. (2010). Business economics. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. Smith, M. (2015). The death of the oligopoly: Australia's incumbents face new rivals. Financial Review. Retrieved 13 April 2017, from Surbhi, S. (2016). Difference between Monopoly and Monopolistic Competition. Retrieved 14 April 2017, from Thapa, R., Solomon, D. Boumphrey, S. (2014). Price Elasticities in Alcoholic Drinks. Euromonitor International Blog. Retrieved 13 April 2017, from Woodhouse, J. (2017). Alcohol: minimum pricing. Retrieved 14 April 2017, from